Animation began almost 2,000 years back star projector using a device referred to as Zoetrope. Now, fans can take advantage of animation in hand drawn, CGI which will help prevent motion formats. From the early days to new technologically advanced technology, here is the history of the genre.
Several countries all over the world have contributed to the idea and invention of animation.
Zoetrope: the first Zoetrope in 180 AD, created by Ting Huan, from China, was an illusion that, when spun, made the pictures appear as though these were moving; present day Zoetrope was founded by William George Harner from Britain in 1834 (see photo).
Magic lantern: Thaumatrope, 1824.
Flip book: patented by John Barns Linnet in 1868.
Mutoscope: in 1894.
Praxinescope: France 1877, created by Charles-Emile Reynaud who made the earth’s first animated film which screened in Paris, France on October 28, 1892 together with his prototype of present day projector he referred to as Théâtre Optique system (invented in 1889).
However, could these early projectors, the 1st animation with the world extends back to 5000 years back, present in present-day Iran (Persia), an animated earthen goblet, depicting a goat jumping with a tree you can eat the leaves. Also, animation has become depicted in cave drawings.
Animation is divided into three categories: traditional animation (includes cel-animation), stop motion (includes claymation), and CGI (computer generated imagery). Even today, mainly because it was often completed in days gone by, any one of them may be congruently combined and even used with live-action, e.g. ‘Who Framed Roger Rabbit’? (1988).
Traditional animation was previously the most used form of animation, going back earlier using animation in films. Traditional, or classical animation mainly because it’s otherwise known as, originally consisted of hand-drawn images on each, single frame, such as background. Later, while using invention of cel-animation, founded by Earl Hurd in 1914 (while employed at John Bray Studio), animation would progress even more.
Cel-animation would be a technique employed in that this animated ink drawings were inked directly onto clear items of celluloid, each frame individually. Then, each piece of celluloid, one-by-one, was placed on just one painted background and then photographed consecutively. Since this saved plenty of time, as the background weren’t required to be used for every frame, other animation studios began copying it. Today, traditional animation is performed digitally on the computer, with ‘digital ink’.
*Even though Earl Hurd, in 1914, invented the cel-animation technique, unfortunately, it absolutely was John Bray Studio who received the loan just for this innovative method. It was misfortunate that earlier animation studios didn’t credit their artists simply regarded fame and monetary gains for themselves.
Otto Messmer, ‘Felix the Cat’ creator, when utilised by the Pat Sullivan Studio, experienced the same unfairness as Hurd. Not once in his entire life did he receive recognition and even monetary gain (Pat Sullivan made millions from Messmer’s creation). This also happened at the Walt Disney Studios; except Disney is considered to own acknowledged his artists; however, Disney, like Pat Sullivan, received millions from his artists’ creations. For instance, it absolutely was Freddie Moore (Robert Fred Moore) who really should have received the general public attention (while he was alive) for his innovative style towards realistic motion; this exceeded beyond the ‘rubber hose’ style with the day.
In stop motion animation, or stop-action, a physical object is slightly moved (object animation), then photographed, one frame during a period. Clay animation (or ‘Claymation’ registered trademarked (1978) by Will Vinton) and pixilation, both initially first employed in 1908. The U.S. clay animated film, developed by The Edison Manufacturing Co. (later generally known as Thomas A. Edison, Inc.) called ‘The Sculptor’s Welsh Rarebit Dream’ (1908) is the 1st known clay animation. ‘El hotel eléctrico’ (The Electric Hotel) (1908), a Spanish film developed by Segundo de Chomón, is definitely an early example with the using pixilation.
There are other variations of stop motion techniques: go motion, stereoscopic, and CGI stop motion.
Go motion was first employed in 1980 in ‘Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back’ and was made to be able to give a more realistic movement for the object(s) inside frame. Since each object, when shot using stop motion, is at crisp clear focus within each frame (which doesn’t realistically represent movement for the human eye), go motion provided the required effect to create a subject’s movement more life-like by creating motion blur. When shooting go motion, the subject, while being recorded, is moved. This creates motion blur. Although there are multiple ways to create a subject move while it’s being recorded, one of many ways is to use rods to regulate the item.
Stereoscopic (‘two’ images) animation refers to 3-D animation. One way to create 3-D images with object animation is simply by the using a binary lens system (aka point-and-shoot stereo cameras), just one camera developed with two lens. Another way to produce 3-D images is while using using a computer and CGI software packages.
CGI animation can be a mix of computer generated imagery with animation techniques, and because with the advancements of computer technology and software, has become becoming preferred type of animation. The difference between CGI along with other types of animations is things are all manipulated using a computer, one frame during a period. Each frame, after manipulation, must be rendered, these types of this, an easy computer is critical.
CGI initially started in earlier seventies while using advancement of computer technology and software. However, it wasn’t until recently, while using using motion capture that CGI characters are becoming an increasing number of realistic.
You don’t have to own a fancy computer and tons of training to get started in animation. Learn to help make your own stop motion movie.
“Film History.” Kristen Thompson, David Bordwell. 2003.
Image in “Beginning with the Art” from Wikimedia Commons